A **point distribution model (PDM) **is a** model** that locates (or determines the geometrical (spatial) distribution of) the points of the shapes or forms (size-and-shapes) in a particular shape or form population. The word *distribution* refers to the spatial distribution of the points; not a probability distribution. This is my best understanding of the definition of PDM’s so far.

A PDM approximates the geometrical distribution of the points of shapes/forms in a population. This means that a PDM is intended to model/express all the possible shapes/forms in the population.

A PDM entails shapes or forms. This means we are working with **superimposed configurations** modulo their location, rotation, and scale information for the case of shapes, and their location and rotation information in the case of forms. Therefore, we assume that shapes or forms are available through performing a full or partial generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) on the given configurations. In other words, a shape is an instance of the full Procrustes fits, and a form is an instance of partial Procrustes fits. Henceforward, whatever includes the concept of a shape in this article also holds for a form unless declared.

As explained, a shape can be (approximately) represented using landmarks, i.e. discrete set of points. By choosing a 3D Cartesian coordinate system (CS) with orthogonal basis vectors and *x*,*y*, and *z* coordinates (axes), the landmark coordinates can then be collected in a matrix. One can readily think of collecting the coordinates in a column vector (in fact every matrix is isomorphic to a vector). Therefore, a shape in a set of shapes, all having the same number of *N* landmarks is represented as a vector called the **shape vector** [1]:

See this post for linear algebra conventions a identities*.*

A shape vector X is a member of the vector space \mathbb{R}^{3N\times 1}. Therefore, there are bases, and X can be written as a linear combination of the basis vectors. By default, the *3N*-D X vector is born in the vector space spanned by the **standard basis**. Indeed, other bases are possible.

Using a basis \{v_1,\dots,v_{3N}\} for the vector space, we can write any shape vector as a deviation from an arbitrary constant (shape) vector a\in \mathbb{R}^{3N\times 1} :

X=a+\sum_{i=1}^{3N}b_iv_i\ ,b_i\in \mathbb{R}\\ \text {or}\\ X=a+Vb\quad ,\quad \text{s.t. }\ V\in\mathbb{R}^{3N\times 3N},\quad V_{,i}=v_i,\quad v_i^\text Tv_j=\delta_{ij}It should be noted that, a is a *point* (position vector) and Vb is a *free vector* in the concept of geometrical modelling.

On the other hand, X is a random vector with with a mean \mu_X and a covariance \Sigma_{XX}. The constant vector a can be replaced with \mu_X. Any other shape vector, like a known arbitrary shape vector in the population, can also be substituted for a. The basis vectors can be chosen such that the linear projection of X onto them generates random variables each having maximum possible variance. These vectors are obtained by PCA as a variance-maximization method. Because \Sigma_{XX} is symmetric, it has *3N* independent and mutually orthogonal eigenvectors, and hence any shape vector can be written as:

where, the term V\varLambda V^\text T is the singular value decomposition (SVD) of \Sigma_{XX} such that the eigenvalues, \lambda_i‘s, collected in the diagonal matrix \varLambda are sorted in the decreasing order. As the covariance matrix is symmetric, SVD is equivalent to the spectral/eigenvalue decomposition of the matrix.

So far we showed that a shape instance (represented by a shape vector) in the population can be generated by deforming the mean shape through a deformation field (vectors) which is determined by linear combinations of the eigenvectors of \Sigma_{XX} . The eigenvectors of \Sigma_{XX} are principal (*3N* dimensional) directions along which the variances of the linearly projected (random) shape vector are maximized. The principal directions are called **deformation modes** (deformations from the mean). The deformation modes are also called **eigenshapes**. The combining coefficients b_i‘s are called the **shape model parameters**. The deformation modes weighted by the shape model parameters adds up to produce a deformation vector that will be added to the mean shape vector to generate a shape. Such a representation is called **the modal representation**; this is the idea behind a PDM.

By choosing proper shape parameters, the model generates shapes in the shape population. It should be noted that there is generally no restrictions on the values of b_i‘s; in other words, the deformation modes can be combined arbitrarily. However, a generated shape out of an arbitrary values of b_i‘s may not fall into the shape population; this is not difficult to imagine.

If we let U:=X-\mu_X, then U is a random vector expressing the deviation of a shape **from the mean shape** of the population. I call this vector the **deviation** or the **deformation shape vector**. This vector contains deformation components (in three directions of the CS) of the mean shape at each of its points. The mean of the deformation shape vector is zero, \mu_U=0. In fact, \Sigma_{XX}=\Sigma_{UU}. This means that the elements of \Sigma_{XX} are variances (or covariances) of the deformation components. U can be linearly projected on the directions (unit vectors) defined by the eigenvectors of \Sigma_{XX}:

and by considering Eq. 2, we can conclude (it is simply the result of the linear projection):

U=Vb\implies U_p=V^\text T Vb=I_rb=bJust as a side note: \mu_U=\mu_{U_p}=\mu_b=0.

On the other hand \Sigma_{bb}=\Sigma_{U_pU_p}=V \Sigma_{UU}V^\text T = \varLambda. This is what we can conclude:

\begin{gathered}X=\mu_X+Vb=\mu_X+\sum_{i=1}^{3N}b_iv_i \tag{3} \\ \ \\ \text{s.t. }\ \Sigma_{bb}=\varLambda= \begin{bmatrix}\lambda_1&0&\dots\ &0\\ 0 &\lambda_2\ &\dots\ &0\\ \vdots&\vdots &\ddots &\vdots\\ 0&0&0&\lambda_{3N} \end{bmatrix}\quad \text{and}\quad \mu_b=0\\ \ \\ \text{with}\\ \ \\ \|b_iv_i\|=|b_i|\end{gathered}Note that \mu_b=0 because \mu_U=0.

It is obvious that the magnitude of b_i controls the magnitude of deformation of the mean shape by each mode. From above, the standard deviation of b_i is \sqrt{\lambda_i}. It is assumed that a PDM generates **plausible shapes**, or **well behaved shapes**, if the shape parameters are limited as:

A plausible shape is created by adding a plausible deformation shape vector to the mean shape vector; a plausible deformation shape vector is a deformation vector that generates shapes still belong to the shape family under consideration.

The covariance matrix \Sigma_{XX} (and also \Sigma_{bb}) is positive semi-definite; therefore, \lambda_i\ge 0. This implies that the variance of some b_i‘s can be zero, i.e. the zero-variance b_i‘s are constant. In that case, b_i=\mu_{b_i}=0 simply because no variation about the mean. Therefore, a deformation mode associated with a shape parameter b_i with zero variance (\lambda_i=0) vanishes from the modal representation. Assuming *M* zero eigenvalues (including algebraic multiplicity), we can write the modal representation of a shape (vector) as:

### Shape approximation

A PDM is based on the modal representation of shapes (Eq. 2 or 3). This kind of representation is useful when it comes to approximation of a shape. In this regard, only some of the deformation modes being relatively more effective in forming a shape is kept and the rest of the modes are ignored. We already showed (Eq. 5) that zero eigenvalue of the covariance matrix leads to zero variation of the corresponding shape parameter and consequently vanishing of the associated mode in the modal representation. This motivates us to throw out the shape parameters with relatively small variances, hence, their associated modes; thereby, approximating a shape vector by a *t*-term compact modal representation:

where v_i‘s are as in Eq.2.

Moreover, by the Least-squares optimality of PCA, we can approximate the shape vector as (see Eq. 3a in this post):

\begin{gathered} X\approx\tilde X =\mu_X + \tilde V\tilde V^\text T(X-\mu_X)= \mu_X +\sum_{i=1}^{t}v_iv_i^\text T(X-\mu_X) \tag{7} \\ \ \\ \text{s.t. }\ b\in \mathbb{R}^{t\times 1}\ , \tilde V=[v_1\quad v_2\ \dots\quad v_t] \in \mathbb{R}^{3N\times t}\ ,\text{ and } t<3N \end{gathered}This indicates that for approximating a particular shape vector, the shape model parameters should be chosen as:

b=\tilde V^\text T(X-\mu_X)\qquad \text{or}\qquad b_i=v_i^\text T(X-\mu_X)\tag{8}But, how many modes i.e. t do we need? it can be determined based on the **goodness-of-fit measure **defined for PCA as a dimension reduction tool (Eq. 7 in this post):

Therefore, we only need to keep the first *t* modes having large associated eigenvalues. Actually, we *hope* that the first *t* eigenvalues are substantially larger than the rest of the eigenvalues. As a suggestion g(t)\le 0.05 is ok.

### Sample shapes (data set)

In practice, the mean and covariance of the shape (random) vector X are unknown and should be estimated. Let S=\{S_1,\dots,S_n\} be a set of sample shapes (each represented by a shape vector S_i) from a particular shape family population. This is, in fact, a set of independent observations of identically distributed random variables. This set is called the **training set**. As a remark, it should be noted that we generally start with a set of configurations, X_c=\{C_1,\dots ,C_n\} out of a configuration population; for example the set of all dinosaurs. Then, we perform the full or the partial GPA to obtain a set of shapes/forms already denoted by S. Having said that, the following estimates are considered [2]:

where *n* is the number of training shapes. The covariance estimate is a symmetric matrix, therefore, it has *3N* independent eigenvectors, however, has at most rank *n* (properties of rank in this post), i.e. non-zero eigenvalues. Therefore, the modal representation of the training shapes and other shapes in the population predicted based on the model generated using sample shapes (training shapes) is:

where \hat v_i is an eigenvector of \hat\Sigma_{XX}.

When *n* is large enough, then we can use the following criterion to select the first *t* modes with relatively large eigenvalues:

This criterion is similar to Eq. 9.

## PDM’s with normal distributions

It can be assumed that a shape vector X, being a random vector, has a multivariate normal distribution i.e. [1]:

X\sim \mathscr N(\mu_X,\Sigma_{XX})\tag{13}This assumption can be manipulated toward a more practical form. Let’s consider the following proposition:

If Y\in \R^{r\times 1} has a multivariate normal distribution Y\sim \mathscr N(\mu_Y,\Sigma_{YY}), A\in \R^{s\times r}, and c\in \R^{s\times 1} being a constant vector, then, the linear transformation X=AY+c is distributed as X\sim \mathscr N(A\mu_Y+c,A\Sigma_{YY}A^\text T) .

Using the proposition and writing the shape vector in its modal form as X=\mu_X+Vb, we can conclude:

X=\mu_X+Vb\sim \mathscr N(\mu_X,\Sigma_{XX})\\ \ \\ \iff X\sim \mathscr N(V\mu_b+\mu_X,V\Sigma_{bb}V^\text T)\\ \ \\ \iff b\sim \mathscr N(0,\Sigma_{bb})where \Sigma_{bb} is the diagonal matrix of the eigenvalues as in Eq. 3.

By the marginalization property of normal distributions:

b_i\sim \mathscr N(0,\lambda_i)and, we can write:

\alpha_i:=\frac{b_i}{\sqrt{\lambda_i}}\implies \alpha_i\sim \mathscr N(0,1)Therefore, the modal representation of the shape vector becomes:

X=\mu_X+\sum_{i=1}^{3N}\alpha_i\sqrt{\lambda_i}v_i\qquad \text{s.t }\ \alpha_i\sim \mathscr N(0,1) \tag{14}For shape vector approximation and sample shape vector, the following equations (based on Eq. 6 and 11) are readily obtainable:

\tilde X=\mu_X+\sum_{i=1}^{t}\alpha_i\sqrt{\lambda_i}v_i\qquad \text{s.t }\ \alpha_i\sim \mathscr N(0,1) \tag{15} X=\bar S+\sum_{i=1}^{n}\alpha_i\sqrt{\lambda_i}\hat v_i\qquad \text{s.t }\ \alpha_i\sim \mathscr N(0,1) \tag{16}## Shape space spanned by the PDM

A shape vector X\in \R^{3N} can be represented by any of the equations 6, 11, 15, or 16. In any of the equations, a 3*N* dimensional shape vector is presented by a linear combination of basis vectors whose number of them is less than the dimension of the shape vector. This means that a PDM spans a space (of shape vectors) which is a subspace of \R^{3N} . Therefore, a PDM model established by training shapes can only constitutes shapes born out of the linear combinations of the shape modes, \hat v_i‘s. Such a model then misses the shapes (in the population) which are not captured by the training set of shapes or cannot be represented by linear combinations of the shape modes.

#### References

[1] *Gaussian Process Morphable Models*, Marcel Luthi , Thomas Gerig, Christoph Jud, and Thomas Vetter. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (Volume: 40 , Issue: 8 , Aug. 1 2018).

[2] *Image Processing and Analysis* (Chapter 7: *Model-Based Methods in Analysis of Biomedical Images*). R. Baldock and J. Graham, Oxford University Press, 2000.